• Dr Parag Diwan

Fin Tech: Transforming the BFSI Sector

Updated: Jan 14, 2021

Financial technology, popularly known as Fintech, is a BFSI (Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance) industry term used by the organizations that utilize the latest technology to make financial services more efficient.

Fintech is a term collectively used for new applications, procedures, products, or service plans in the BFSI industry, comprising of one or more complementary financial services that are delivered as an end-to-end process using technology applications.

FinTech is fast gathering steam and is a game-changer for efficiencies of scale and scope for BFSI companies. Increasingly, different financial industries are moving towards online platforms — Mobile payments methods are accepted on almost all e-commerce platforms, and most financial activities, like trading, personal finance, and currency exchanges, can be done easily on mobile apps.

Key drivers of FinTech

The emergence of multiple technologies: Quick pace of technological advancement coupled with ever-increasing innovations leading to a reduction in service costs.

Customer Pull: Increasingly, tech-savvy customers are more inclined to online or digital services. They seek the power of any time, anywhere convenience of transacting business without human interventions.

Government Support: Government also understands that the emergence of Fintech will irrevocably change the face of the financial sector. Such technologies also give the government a better handle on putting regulatory compliances in place (such as KYC and AML)

Availability of Funds: Many VC funds, PE funds, and Angel Investments are flowing in Fintech startups leading to diminishing cost of innovation and passing of cost benefits to the customer.

Five Technologies with Impact Potential on Financial Services

1. Digital Wallets

A digital wallet is a framework that securely stores users’ payment information and passwords for many payment methods and websites. By using a digital wallet, users can complete purchases easily and quickly with near-field communications (NFC) technology.

Digital wallets can be used in conjunction with mobile payment systems, which allow customers to pay for purchases with their smartphones. A digital wallet can also be used to store loyalty card information and digital coupons.

Technologies used by digital wallets

NFC: Near-field communication (NFC) is a set of communication rules which enables two different devices to connect when we bring them within a 4 cm range. This technology is used in digital wallets and debit or credit cards.

Unified Payment Interface: Unified Payment Interface (UPI) is developed by the National Payment Corporation of India for transferring funds instantly from one bank account to another bank account. This service is available 24*7 and across public holidays.

Unlike other mobile wallets, which stores money in their own account before transferring to another account, UPI withdraws fund and directly deposit it to the recipient’s bank account when the transaction is requested.

2. Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that intends to make machines intelligent. AI has turned into the building block for cyber-physical systems that are increasingly eliminating human interventions in the BFSI sector. AI has slowly but surely become an integral part of FinTech. Some of its applications are as follows:-

- Wealth Management

AI is being used to predict investment patterns and analysis which many wealth management companies started using for their clients. Traditional algorithm trading was used to find different opportunities in the stock markets whereas the new generation of algorithms using AI, work day and night as an independent trader in the market to find the best investment opportunities for clients.

Due to the deep learning algorithms embedded in AI systems, it is difficult for a normal human to match its accuracy.

AI can read billions of data points which can also spot trends better than humans. It can help the investors to predict future prices accurately without the effect of emotions.

- Game-changing insights and Predictive Analysis

One of the biggest use of AI in Fintech is to generate insights that can predict customer behavior accurately. Already AI systems are in existence that can learn customers’ past behavior and make accurate investment recommendations based on customers’ credit-worthiness.

Increasingly, most machine learning algorithms today are being coupled with predictive analytics to provide a rationale as to how a decision has arrived.

Predictive analytics would be widely adopted by enterprises either as a best practice requirement.

- Early detection and prevention of cyber-security threats

Security is a big issue, especially when it comes to online transactions. Using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), Fintech companies can build robust security systems into their solutions.

The GAN works with two opposing networks, one generator, and one discriminator. The generator network creates fake data that looks exactly like the real data set.

The discriminator network analyses both fake data and real data. Each network learns from the other and gets better over time. This system can be especially useful in detecting fraudulent behavior and suspicious transactions. This leads to the early detection and prevention of cybersecurity threats.

- Visual identification and verification

Using techniques built through ‘capsule neural networks’ to visually identify customers and documents could provide a huge leap in streamlining functions like account creation, loan, and insurance origination and documentation. An AI implementation could visually verify if the documents fed to it are authentic, and whether a customer trying to apply for a loan is the person who he or she claims to be. Coupled with a credit administration software that handles loan documentation for all parties (lawyers, evaluators, bankers), AI could provide degrees of automation that were previously thought impossible.

- Chat-bots that are more “human”

Also, paired with a customer engagement platform, an AI tool could power next-generation chatbots that can intelligently answer customer queries, effectively reducing the load from the customer services department.

Chatbots can be integrated with social networking sites, and accept requests for application and orders directly from social media channels.

According to a prediction by 2018 more than 2 billion people will be regularly using conversational AI to interact with virtual customer assistants on smartphones and connected devices.

3. Block chain

In recent times, Blockchain technology has become increasingly popular in the Fintech sector. The financials companies are adopting blockchain solutions in their activities to enhance security. This makes blockchain a critical apparatus in building trust amongst customers and businesses.

It is becoming increasingly clear that blockchain technology will be in great demand in the financial industry in the years to come.

- Blockchain for Digital Identity

The need for a single centralized source of truth about identities is becoming a necessity in every community and corporation. Imagine a decentralized digital identity system, a source of truth where every single data element, such as user attributes and credentials, are included in the system only by distributed consensus.

This model is the focus of many enterprises leading to the fact that users get more control over their identity as they can share it only with trusted parties. No single centralized entity can tamper with user identities or data.

For users, this model improves accessibility, the privacy of their data, and control over their personal data. For enterprises, this model reduces identity management costs, eases the monitoring process, and improves customer service and efficiency.

- Cross Border Payments

Blockchain technology can improve many processes within the financial sector, such as cross-border payments. The transfer of value has always been an expensive and slow process. This is particularly true for cross-border payments. For instance, if a person wants to transfer money from Europe to their family in the Philippines, who have an account with a local bank, it takes several banks (and currencies) before the money can be collected. Using services like Western Union for the same transaction is faster but very expensive.

When regulation has been implemented, blockchain technology will also be an interesting option for corporate cross-border payments. It is hard for individual clients to lose money when the counterparty either becomes bankrupt or rogue. It is problematic for corporates to transfer large amounts of money through cross-border payments, in the eventuality of products and services not delivered in lieu thereof.

With the proper regulation, banks will be able to offer their corporate clients interesting propositions based on blockchain technology. Increasingly several technology providers are already building their understanding of the application of blockchain technology to resolve and secure such cross-border financial transactions.

- Smart Contracts

Smart contracts (which are one of the most highly anticipated applications of blockchain technology) are computer programs that facilitate, verify, or enforce the negotiation or execution of an agreement. Smart contracts often emulate the logic of regular contractual clauses. Therefore, many kinds of contractual clauses can be made partially or fully self-executing, self-enforcing, or both.

The benefits of blockchain technology are obvious as it leads to smart contracts that can be more secure than traditional contracts. Also, they can reduce the number of transaction costs associated with contracting, since blockchain technology cuts out any middlemen. However, the fact remains that the quality of the output depends on the quality of the input.

Smart contracts are by no means magical constructs that understand user intent and are always flawless.

If there is an oversight in the text, the result might be even more dramatic than in a traditional contract, because the rules of the smart contract are recorded in computer code and cannot be freely interpreted according to ‘the intent of the contract’, but only according to the literal meaning.

4. Big Data

Big Data, too has played a major role in the pervasiveness of FinTech.

One of the main sectors that have been positively impacted by Big Data is lending and credit scoring. Traditionally, the credit scores were based on basic financial transactions and these scores were referred to for all credit activities in the financial sector. With the advent of Big Data, the scope has been expanded to consider factors such as willingness, ability, and behavior.

BFSI companies are heavily leveraging big data and using digital channels for customer acquisition. Data analytics help financial services firms in offering contextual and personalized engagements and increasing the opportunities for cross-selling and upselling.

In fact, the use of AI and Big Data together helps financial institutions to get insights from social media and thereby improving customer engagement. This leads to a better customer experience as they are benefited from better advice on their investments.

Other applications of Big Data in the BFSI sector

- Providing better value to the customer

All BFSI companies are using Big Data to offer better customer service. However, many customers have expressed concerns about companies having access to their data. Accordingly to some surveys, customers have stated that they are willing to give financial institutions access to their data if it leads to better service, especially if they are seeking loan facilities.

- Meeting Compliance Standards More Consistently

Regulators around the world have adopted stricter standards in the aftermath of the financial crisis. Big data helps in the conduct of better internal audits, which reduces the risk for companies to get penalized by financial regulators. Many firms believe that Big Data has completely changed the auditing process.

5. Virtual Reality

In the Fintech world, usage of VR technology means truly experiencing a financial service or product in a virtual store for financial products that will help a customer make a purchase decision from the comfort of their house using a handheld device.

These virtual or augmented spaces will be able to simulate real-life scenarios that can enable you to have a superior understanding of a financial product or service.

The real-time user experiences (UX) provided by this technology has the potential to build new market dynamics. Though these are still early days for VR and AR, BFSI companies are already able to see the potential of wider engagement and adoption that is about to happen.

Fintech is all about UX and customer engagement that is what differentiates a Fintech-enabled company from a traditional financial company. This trend can only accelerate as a result of reactive frameworks, standard data formats, and immersive experiences.

- Data Visualization Utilizing VR/AR

Financial markets and trading are heavily dependent on automatic processes and algorithms. However, with the emergence of too much data, it is becoming impossible for humans to understand the outcomes of analytics. This is where VR can come in and create an opportunity with data visualization products.

Use data visualization to analyses large clusters of data can help decision-makers understand complicated concepts and identify new patterns visually. Utilizing data visualization tools, the end-user can access a broad picture or dive deeper into highly specific areas easily and quickly.

- Disrupt The Client-Service Approach To Banking

Innovative companies are demonstrating a VR enabled wealth management prototype that can merge wearables, algorithms, and human relations that can make the banking experience truly enjoyable.

- New VR/AR Payment Opportunities

VR/AR technology will also bring about new payment options that will enable customers to make payments virtually.

In a prototype application, Master Card has demonstrated an experience whereby a customer can purchase without exiting the virtual world.

As of now, VR/AR and associated technologies are in their initial stages. But soon, they about to explode and make a huge impact on all segments of BFSI.


For now, some of the technologies are in their initial stages. As is evident, they are on an inflection point, and sooner than later, their impact would be seen in the Financial sector. Currently, hundreds of entrepreneurial startups are working on new applications and solutions for financial sectors to take Fintech on another plane.
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